UFREETV - FINANCIAL SECTION INFORMATION TO HELP YOU MAKE CRITICAL FINANCIAL DECISIONS
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT eSURANCE AUTO INSURANCE? When it comes to car insurance, sometimes you want to talk to an insurance pro and sometimes you just want to take care of business online. With Esurance, you can do both. As one of the first to bring car insurance online, Esurance has been innovating auto insurance for more than a decade. Our financial strength is rated "Superior" by A.M. Best, and our customer service reps are available to help you anytime, day or night.
Esurance offers car insurance discounts to help you save extra. From the Good Driver discount to the Switch & Save®, we make it easy to qualify for additional insurance savings.
The availability of car insurance discounts varies by state, but here's a handful of customer favorites. -Claim-Free discount As an extension of our rewards for safe driving, the Claim-Free discount could help you save up to 20 percent if you haven't filed certain types of claims in the past 5 years.
-Multi-Car discount Insure more than one car on your policy to qualify for this discount.
-Homeowners discount If you own a home or condo, you qualify for the Homeowners discount.
-Good Driver discount We believe in rewarding safe drivers with extra savings. Drivers without many at-fault accidents or moving violations could qualify for this car insurance discount.
-Switch & Save® discount Switch to Esurance from your current company to qualify for the Switch & Save discount.
-Fast 5® discount Save 5 percent on your car insurance policy just for starting your quote online.
-Paid in Full discount Get a discount of up to 10 percent for paying your premium all at once.
-Vehicle safety discounts We offer discounts for additional safety features on your vehicle, including a Safety Device, Anti-Theft, Daytime Running Lights, and Anti-Lock Brakes discount.
eSurance auto insurance is fast becoming the most popular online auto insurance source. If you are shopping for auto insurance or are just trying to find a cheaper priced auto insurance, then eSurance might be the perfect auto insurance company for you.
What's covered Esurance provides comprehensive coverage options that you can tailor to suit your individual needs. We recommend using our online Coverage Counselor® before getting your car insurance quote.
When you see your personalized quote, you'll be able to see how your selected coverages drive the price of your policy. If you have any questions, our auto insurance FAQ library explains coverages (and how to approach them) in detail. And if you still have questions, or just prefer to speak with someone, our licensed agents are standing by at 1-800-ESURANCE (1-800-378-7262).
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DO YOU KNOW H.A.R.P CAN HELP WITH YOUR MORTGAGE? Keeping up with mortgage payments can be difficult, especially with circumstances like job loss, decreasing home values, or overextended credit and the fear of foreclosure.
The foreclosure process as applied to residential mortgage loans is a bank or other secured creditor selling or repossessing a parcel of real property (immovable property) after the owner has failed to comply with an agreement between the lender and borrower called a "mortgage" or "deed of trust." Commonly, the violation of the mortgage is a default in payment of a promissory note, secured by a lien on the property. When the process is complete, the lender can sell the property and keep the proceeds to pay off its mortgage and any legal costs, and it is typically said that "the lender has foreclosed its mortgage or lien." If the promissory note was made with a recourse clause then if the sale does not bring enough to pay the existing balance of principal and fees the mortgagee can file a claim for a deficiency judgment. In many states in the United States, items included to calculate the amount of a deficiency judgment include: the loan principal, accrued interest and attorney fees less the amount the lender bid at the foreclosure sale.
Refinancing your mortgage could put you in a better financial position to help you avoid payment challenges that could lead to foreclosure in the future. You may want to remove the uncertainty of an adjustable rate mortgage by switching to a fixed rate, or possibly reduce your monthly payments with a lower interest rate.
Many refinance programs require a significant amount of home equity. But with changes to the government’s Home Affordable Refinance Program, you may be able to refinance even if you owe much more than your home is worth.
The HARP program, which was rolled out in 2009, is designed to help. Those who are “underwater” on their homes and owe more than the homes are worth.
The Home Affordable Refinance Program, also known as HARP, is a federal program of the United States, set up by the Federal Housing Finance Agency in March 2009 to help underwater and near-underwater homeowners refinance their mortgages. Unlike the Home Affordable Modification Program (HAMP), which aims to assist homeowners who are in danger of foreclosure, this program targets homeowners who are current on their monthly mortgage payments but are unable to refinance due to dropping home prices in the wake of the U.S. housing market correction.
Many people who purchased their home with a down payment of less than 20% of the purchase price were required to have private mortgage insurance (PMI). This is common practice with Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae loans. Having PMI attached to a loan made that loan easier to sell on the Wall Street secondary market as a "whole loan". PMI hedged the risk brought by the high loan-to-value ratio by offering insurance against foreclosure for whomever owned the "whole loan".
Although HARP 2.0 allows homeowners with PMI to apply through the Making Home Affordable Refinance Program, many homeowners have faced difficulty refinancing with their original lender. HARP requires the new loan to provide the same level of mortgage insurance coverage as the original loan. This can be difficult and time-consuming, especially in the case of lender-paid private mortgage insurance (LPMI). As a result, many lenders are reluctant to refinance a PMI mortgage.
Fortunately, HARP 2.0 enables homeowners to go to any lender to refinance, so the mortgage holder is not stymied if the original bank is unwilling to pursue a HARP refinance.
To qualify for HARP certain criteria must be met. While there may be additional criteria imposed by the mortgage servicer, the government requirements are as follows:
-The mortgage must be owned or guaranteed by Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. Many homeowners are unaware that their mortgages are linked to one of these organizations, since neither Freddie Mac nor Fannie Mae deals directly with the public. -The mortgage must have been acquired by Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae on or before May 31, 2009. -The homeowner must not have a previous HARP refinance of the mortgage, unless it is a Fannie Mae loan that was refinanced under HARP during March-May 2009. -The homeowner must be current on their mortgage payments, with no (30-day) late payments in the last six months and no more than one late payment in the last twelve months. -The current loan-to-value ratio (LTV) of the property must be greater than 80%. -The homeowner must benefit from the loan by either lower monthly payments or movement to a more stable product (such as going from an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) to a fixed-rate mortgage).
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WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A REVERSE MORTGAGE AND A HOME EQUITY LOAN? Difference Between a Reverse Mortgage and a Home Equity Loan Generally a home equity loan, a second mortgage, or a home equity line of credit (HELOC) have strict requirements for income and creditworthiness. Also, with other traditional loans the homeowner must still make monthly payments to repay the loans. A reverse mortgage generally has no credit score requirements and instead of making monthly mortgage payments, the homeowner receives cash from the lender.
With a reverse mortgage the amount that can be borrowed is determined by an FHA formula that considers age, the current interest rate, and the appraised value of the home. Typically, the more valuable the home, the higher the loan amount will be, subject to lending limits.
A reverse mortgage gives over part of your homes equity to a lender and they in turn give you a monthly payment (reverse of a normal mortgage) but you need to either own the home completely or have a very low balance and it is only for people over the age of 62. You don't have to pay the money back the balance you received is simply given back to the bank when the home is sold or property rights transferred. A equity loan is basically a second mortgage on a home, the property is used as collateral the bank gives you a certain amount either as a lump sum or line of credit and you make regular monthly payments.
To summarize the key differences, with traditional loans the homeowner is still required to make monthly payments, but with a reverse mortgage the loan is typically not due as long as the homeowner lives in the home as their primary residence and continues to meet all loan obligations. With a reverse mortgage no monthly mortgage payments are required, however the homeowner is still responsible for property taxes, insurance, and maintenance.
A reverse mortgage is a form of equity release (or lifetime mortgage). It is a loan available to home owners of retirement age, enabling them to access a portion of their home's equity. The home owners can draw the mortgage principal in a lump sum, by receiving monthly payments over a specified term or over their (joint) lifetimes, as a revolving line of credit, or some combination thereof.
In a conventional mortgage the homeowner makes a monthly amortized payment to the lender; after each payment the equity increases by the amount of the principal included in the payment, and when the mortgage has been paid in full the property is released from the mortgage. In a reverse mortgage, the home owner is under no obligation to make payments, but is free to do so with no pre-payment penalties. The line of credit portion operates like a revolving credit line, so a payment in reduction of a line of credit increases the available credit by the same amount. Interest that accrues is added to the mortgage balance.
Title to the property remains in the name of the homeowners, to be disposed of as they wish, encumbered only by the amount owing under the mortgage.
If a property has increased in value after a reverse mortgage is taken out, it is possible to acquire a second (or third) reverse mortgage over the increased equity in the home in some areas. However most lenders do not like to take a second or third lien position behind a reverse mortgage because its balance increases with time. It is rare to find reverse mortgages with subordinate liens behind them as a result. A reverse mortgage may be refinanced if enough equity is present in the home, and in some cases may qualify for a streamline refinance if the interest rate is reduced.
A reverse mortgage line is often recorded at a higher dollar amount than the amount of money actually disbursed at the loan closing. This recorded lien is at times misunderstood by some borrowers as being the payoff amount of the mortgage. The recorded lien works in similar fashion to a home equity line of credit where the lien represents the maximum lending limit, but the payoff is calculated based on actual disbursements plus interest owing.
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WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT TAXES: In the United States, a tax is imposed on income by the federal, most states, and many local governments. The income tax is determined by applying a tax rate, which may increase as income increases, to taxable income as defined. Individuals and corporations are directly taxable, and estates and trusts may be taxable on undistributed income.
Partnerships are not taxed, but their partners are taxed on their shares of partnership income. Residents and citizens are taxed on worldwide income, while nonresidents are taxed only on income within the jurisdiction. Several types of credits reduce tax, and some types of credits may exceed tax before credits. An alternative tax applies at the federal and some state levels.
Taxable income is total income less allowable deductions. Income is broadly defined. Most business expenses are deductible. Individuals may also deduct a personal allowance (exemption) and certain personal expenses, including home mortgage interest, state taxes, contributions to charity, and some other items. Some deductions are subject to limits.
Capital gains are taxable, and capital losses reduce taxable income only to the extent of gains (plus, in certain cases, $3,000 or $1,500 of ordinary income). Individuals currently pay a lower rate of tax on capital gains and certain corporate dividends.
Taxpayers generally must self assess income tax by filing tax returns. Advance payments of tax are required in the form of withholding tax or estimated tax payments. Taxes are determined separately by each jurisdiction imposing tax. Due dates and other administrative procedures vary by jurisdiction. April 15 following the tax year is the last day for individuals to file tax returns for federal and many state and local returns. Tax as determined by the taxpayer may be adjusted by the taxing jurisdiction.
A tax is imposed on net taxable income in the United States by the federal, most state, and some local governments. Income tax is imposed on individuals, corporations, estates, and trusts. The definition of net taxable income for most sub-federal jurisdictions mostly follows the federal definition.
The rate of tax at the federal level is graduated; that is, the tax rates of higher amounts of income are higher than on lower amounts. The lower rate on lower income was phased out at higher incomes prior to 2010.[clarification needed] Some states and localities impose an income tax at a graduated rate, and some at a flat rate on all taxable income. federal tax rates in 2009 varied from 10% to 35%.
From 2003 through 2011, individuals were eligible for a reduced rate of federal income tax on capital gains and qualifying dividends. The tax rate and some deductions are different for individuals depending on filing status. Married individuals may compute tax as a couple or separately. Single individuals may be eligible for reduced tax rates if they are head of a household in which they live with a dependent.
Taxable income: is defined in a comprehensive manner in the Internal Revenue Code and regulations issued by the Department of Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service. Taxable income is gross income as adjusted minus tax deductions. Most states and localities follow this definition at least in part, though some make adjustments to determine income taxed in that jurisdiction. Taxable income for a company or business may not be the same as its book income.
Gross income: includes all income earned or received from whatever source. This includes salaries and wages, tips, pensions, fees earned for services, price of goods sold, other business income, gains on sale of other property, rents received, interest and dividends received, alimony received, proceeds from selling crops, and many other types of income. Some income, however, is exempt from income tax. This includes interest on municipal bonds.
Adjustments: (usually reductions) to gross income of individuals are made for alimony paid, contributions to many types of retirement or health savings plans, certain student loan interest, half of self-employment tax, and a few other items. The cost of goods sold in a business is a direct reduction of gross income.
Business deductions: Taxable income of all taxpayers is reduced by tax deductions for expenses related to their business. These include salaries, rent, and other business expenses paid or accrued, as well as allowances for depreciation. The deduction of expenses may result in a loss. Generally, such loss can reduce other taxable income, subject to some limits.
Personal deductions: Individuals are allowed several nonbusiness deductions. A flat amount per person is allowed as a deduction for personal exemptions. For 2012 this amount is $3,800. Taxpayers are allowed one such deduction for themselves and one for each person they support.
Standard deduction: In addition, individuals get a deduction from taxable income for certain personal expenses. Alternatively, the individual may claim a standard deduction. For 2012, the standard deduction is $5,950 for single individuals, $11,900 for a married couple, and $8,700 for a head of household.
Itemized deductions: Those who choose to claim actual itemized deductions may deduct the following, subject to many conditions and limitations: Medical expenses in excess of 7.5% of adjusted gross income, State, local, and foreign taxes, Home mortgage interest, Contributions to charities, Losses on nonbusiness property due to casualty, and Deductions for expenses incurred in the production of income in excess of 2% of adjusted gross income. Capital gains: and qualified dividends may be taxed as part of taxable income. However, the tax is limited to a lower tax rate. Capital gains include gains on selling stocks and bonds, real estate, and other capital assets. The gain is the excess of the proceeds over the adjusted basis (cost less depreciation deductions allowed) of the property. This limit on tax also applies to dividends from U.S. corporations and many foreign corporations. There are limits on how much net capital loss may reduce other taxable income.
Tax credits: All taxpayers are allowed a tax credit for foreign taxes and for a percentage of certain types of business expenses. Individuals are also allowed credits related to education expenses, retirement savings, child care expenses, and a credit for each child. Each of the credits is subject to specific rules and limitations. Some credits are treated as refundable payments.
Alternative Minimum Tax: All taxpayers are also subject to the Alternative Minimum Tax if their income exceeds certain exclusion amounts. This tax applies only if it exceeds regular income tax, and is reduced by some credits.
Tax returns: Individuals must file income tax returns in each year their income exceeds the standard deduction plus one personal exemption, or if any tax is due. Other taxpayers must file income tax returns each year. These returns may be filed electronically. Generally, an individual's tax return covers the calendar year. Corporations may elect a different tax year. Most states and localities follow the federal tax year, and require separate returns.
Tax payment: Taxpayers must pay income tax due without waiting for an assessment. Many taxpayers are subject to withholding taxes when they receive income. To the extent withholding taxes do not cover all taxes due, all taxpayers must make estimated tax payments.
Tax penalties: Failing to make payments on time, or failing to file returns, can result in substantial penalties. Certain intentional failures may result in jail time.
Tax returns may be examined and adjusted by tax authorities. Taxpayers have rights to appeal any change to tax, and these rights vary by jurisdiction. Taxpayers may also go to court to contest tax changes. Tax authorities may not make changes after a certain period of time (generally 3 years).
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CREDIT CARD 101 The Credit card - You can use a credit card to buy things and pay for them over time. But remember, buying with credit is a loan - you have to pay the money back. And some issuers charge an annual fee for their cards. Some credit card issuers also provide “courtesy” checks to their customers. You can use these checks in place of your card, but they’re not a gift - they’re also a loan that you must pay back. And if you don’t pay your bill on time or in full when it’s due, you will owe a finance charge - the dollar amount you pay to use credit. The finance charge depends in part on your outstanding balance and the annual percentage rate (APR).
Charge card - If you use a charge card, you must pay the balance in full each time you get your statement.
Debit card - This card allows you to make purchases in real-time by accessing the money in your checking or savings account electronically.
The Fine Print When applying for credit cards, it’s important to shop around. Fees, interest rates, finance charges, and benefits can vary greatly. And, in some cases, credit cards might seem like great deals until you read the fine print and disclosures. When you’re trying to find the credit card that’s right for you, look at the:
Annual percentage rate (APR) - The APR is a measure of the cost of credit, expressed as a yearly interest rate. It must be disclosed before your account can be activated, and it must appear on your account statements. The card issuer also must disclose the “periodic rate” - the rate applied to your outstanding balance to figure the finance charge for each billing period.
Some credit card plans allow the issuer to change your APR when interest rates or other economic indicators - called indexes - change. Because the rate change is linked to the index’s performance, these plans are called “variable rate” programs. Rate changes raise or lower the finance charge on your account. If you’re considering a variable rate card, the issuer also must tell you that the rate may change and how the rate is determined.
Before you become obligated on the account, you also must receive information about any limits on how much and how often your rate may change.
Grace period - The grace period is the number of days you have to pay your bill in full without triggering a finance charge. For example, the credit card company may say that you have 25 days from the statement date, provided you paid your previous balance in full by the due date. The statement date is on the bill.
The grace period usually applies only to new purchases. Most credit cards do not give a grace period for cash advances and balance transfers. Instead, interest charges start right away. If your card includes a grace period, the issuer must mail your bill at least 14 days before the due date so you’ll have enough time to pay.
Annual fees - Many issuers charge annual membership or participation fees.Some card issuers assess the fee in monthly installments.
Transaction fees and other charges - Some issuers charge a fee if you use the card to get a cash advance, make a late payment, or exceed your credit limit. Some charge a monthly fee if you use the card - or if you don't.
Customer service - Customer service is something most people don’t consider, or appreciate, until there’s a problem. Look for a 24-hour toll-free telephone number.
Unauthorized charges - If your card is used without your permission, you can be held responsible for up to $50 per card. If you report the loss before the card is used, you can’t be held responsible for any unauthorized charges. To minimize your liability, report the loss as soon as possible. Some issuers have 24-hour toll-free telephone numbers to accept emergency information. It’s a good idea to follow-up with a letter to the issuer - include your account number, the date you noticed your card missing, and the date you reported the loss.Keep a record - in a safe place separate from your cards - of your account numbers, expiration dates, and the telephone numbers of each card issuer so you can report a loss quickly.
CREDIT REPORT FACTS: Since the slightest financial mistake can affect how much credit you qualify for, and the interest rates you will have to pay on your loan, times like these should make you want to monitor your credit more closely. And there are a number of companies out there that offer this service. You can get your credit report from - Equifax®, Experian® and TransUnion®.
Here are some examples of the information credit monitoring services provide that you won’t get on a free credit report: Making sense of reports. Each of the three major credit reporting agencies issue reports in different ways. They can be difficult to understand if you don't have a lot of experience reading credit reports. A monitoring service can help you synthesize that information in a way that's easy to read and decipher.
Access to all agencies in a single report. Not only do each of the major reporting agencies not compile reports in the same way, they also don't necessarily share data. So, while you might not have a blemish on one agency's report, one may appear in a report from a different agency. A credit monitoring service allows you access to reports based on data from all three agencies, so you can check them all for discrepancies. Because of the lack of formatting in the free credit reports, it can be difficult to impossible to compare and contrast the credit reports you receive from the different agencies.
Daily monitoring. Whenever you request a free report, the information you get back reflects your financial situation as it stands at the time of your request. So, where a one-time free credit report provides a snapshot in time of your credit history, credit monitoring gives you a more complete, moving picture. As you work toward improving your credit rating in order to make a major purchase, you can keep track of your progress and apply for financing when you feel most comfortable.
Alerts. In addition to giving you daily updates on your credit, you can and should pick a credit monitoring service that will alert you if certain changes are detected in your credit report. That way, if you become a victim of identity theft or other related fraud, you have the ability to deal with it immediately and keep your credit in good standing.
The bottom line is that by spending a few dollars to monitor your credit, you may end up saving yourself a significant amount of money in the long run because you'll be able to get a better interest rate on a mortgage or large loan. You also will have the added benefit of knowing when your credit has been compromised.
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DO YOU KNOW THE THREE C'S OF CREDIT EVALUATION? CAPACITY This refers to the amount of debt you can realistically pay given your income. Creditors look at how long you’ve been on your job, your income, and the likelihood that it will increase over time. They also look to see that you’re in a stable job or at least a stable industry. So when you fill out a credit application, make your job sound as stable and high-level as you honestly can. Are you a secretary, or are you an “executive assistant” or “office manager”? Present yourself in the best possible light, but don’t mislead or lie. Because employment history and income may not be included in your credit report, creditors may get that information from you, your records, and your employer.
Creditors do use your credit report to examine your existing credit relationships, such as credit cards, bank loans, and mortgages. They want to know your credit limits (you may be denied additional credit if you already have a lot of open credit lines), your current credit balances, how long you’ve had each account, and your payment history-whether you pay late or on time.
COLLATERAL Creditors like to see that you have assets they can take if you don’t pay your debt. Owning a home or liquid assets such as a mutual fund may offer considerable comfort to a creditor reviewing an application. This is especially true if your credit report has negative notations in it, such as late payments. A credit report won’t tell a creditor what assets you own. Of course, if your mortgage payments are reported, the creditor will know that you own a home and how much you owe on the mortgage.
CHARACTER Creditors develop a feeling of your financial character through objective factors that show stability. These include the length of your residency, the length of your employment, whether you rent or own your home (you’re more likely to stay put if you own), and whether you have checking and savings accounts. Credit reports will tell creditors how long you have maintained credit accounts and how long you have lived at your current address, and they may have employment information. Some specialty credit reporting agencies include information on whether you have bounced checks.
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UFREETV.COM™ encourages you to learn all the details of your financial contracts before signing any documents or making any decisions.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is a form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the important role of thinking in how we feel and what we do.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy does not exist as a distinct therapeutic technique. The term "cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)" is a very general term for a classification of therapies with similarities. There are several approaches to cognitive-behavioral therapy, including Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Rational Behavior Therapy, Rational Living Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Dialectic Behavior Therapy.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is comprised of both cognitive and behavioral techniques. The premise underlying a cognitive-behavioral orientation is that difficulties in living, relationships, general health, etc., have their origin in (and are maintained by) both cognitive and behavioral factors.
CBT is thought to be effective for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, tic, and psychotic disorders. Many CBT treatment programs for specific disorders have been evaluated for efficacy; the health-care trend of evidence-based treatment, where specific treatments for symptom-based diagnoses are recommended, has favored CBT over other approaches such as psychodynamic treatments.
CBT was primarily developed through an integration of behavior therapy (the term "behavior modification" appears to have been first used by Edward Thorndike) with cognitive psychology research, first by Donald Meichenbaum and several other authors with the label of cognitive-behavior modification in the late 1970s. This tradition thereafter merged with earlier work of a few clinicians, labeled as Cognitive Therapy (CT), developed by Aaron Beck, and Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) developed by Albert Ellis. While rooted in rather different theories, these two traditions have been characterised by a constant reference to experimental research to test hypotheses, both at clinical and basic level. Common features of CBT procedures are the focus on the "here and now", a directive or guidance role of the therapist, a structuring of the psychotherapy sessions and path, and on alleviating both symptoms and patients' vulnerability.
The cognitive strategies of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy aim to uncover the irrational and problematic thinking styles that often accompany psychological distress. These strategies are based on the established finding that one’s feelings are a direct extension of one’s thoughts. Simply put, how you think determines how you feel. Thus, the aim of cognitive interventions is to challenge, and ultimately change, maladaptive, self-defeating cognitions, and allow the client to lead a more productive and satisfying life. Simple to learn cognitive strategies provide clients with practical and powerful skills that can be applied over a lifetime as effective tools in life-management. Cognitive strategies have been shown to be especially effective in the treatment of anxiety and depression.
Behavioral techniques are also central to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. These techniques follow from the premise that maladaptive behaviors are learned, and therefore be unlearned as well. Among the behavioral techniques employed are training in both assertiveness and relaxation, and gradual desensitization to feared objects. Behavioral interventions have been demonstrated to be highly successful in the treatment of a broad range of specific problems including phobias, repetitive habits (nail-biting, hand- wringing, etc.), and bed-wetting, as well as more non-specific generalized complaints such as anxiety and/or depression.
CBT is based on the Cognitive Model of Emotional Response. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts cause our feelings and behaviors, not external things, like people, situations, and events. The benefit of this fact is that we can change the way we think to feel / act better even if the situation does not change.
Taken together, the cognitive and behavioral strategies create a balanced approach to understanding and treating common life-problems. This approach provides a means of examining not only the manner in which individuals view themselves and their environment (cognitions), but also the way in which they act on that environment (behavior). Ultimately, the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapist seeks to effect positive and lasting change by working with the client to modify their maladaptive thoughts and/or behaviors.
CBT is a collaborative effort between the therapist and the client. Cognitive-behavioral therapists seek to learn what their clients want out of life (their goals) and then help their clients achieve those goals. The therapist's role is to listen, teach, and encourage, while the client's roles is to express concerns, learn, and implement that learning.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy has its roots in behavioralism as well as cognitive therapy. Most modern cognitive-behavioral therapists integrate principles from both these schools of thought. A distinguishing characteristic of this field of clinical psychology is its reliance on techniques that have been subjected to scientific research and demonstrated to be effective clinical methods.